Click on one of the buttons to see the FAQ about “batteries” or “lighting”. Would you like to see all FAQ? Then click on the “general” button.
ATEX is driven by EU legislation, while IECEx is a voluntary certification scheme. However, both provide an acceptable way to demonstrate compliance with IEC standards. The difference between ATEX and IECEx is initially that ATEX is only valid in the EU and IECEx is accepted worldwide. Look here for more information about ATEX.
Most of the time. Alkaline batteries only have a capacity of 1.5 volts at the beginning of use, but this soon drops and eventually it even falls below the level of a rechargeable battery. Rechargeable batteries, on the other hand, have a very stable voltage course.
These are the common abbreviations for the battery systems. These are the terms that are universally used and you can also find them in this product catalogue. A round battery (see table) is round and flat. A P is the designation for all batteries that are not round. Many chemical abbreviations may therefore be followed by an F (flat) or a P, in addition to an R.
|B = Lithium carbon monofluoride (low drain)||BR|
|C = Lithium mangaan dioxide (high drain)||CR|
|E = Lithium thionyl chloride||ER|
|F = Lithium iron disulfide||FR|
|G = Lithium Copper oxide||GR|
|K = Cadmium||KR|
|L = Alkaline||LR|
|M = Mercury||MR|
|P = Oxygen||PR|
|S = Silver||SR|
An LR battery is a round alkaline battery. So a flat alkaline battery would become an LF battery and so on.
They last extremely long because they can be recharged a thousand times. Although they are more expensive to buy than non-rechargeable alkaline batteries, if you use batteries regularly, the investment in the battery and charger will pay for itself very quickly. So you don’t have to keep going back for a new set of batteries.
Because rechargeable batteries last longer, the amount of alkaline batteries going into waste is reduced, which is better for the environment. Ask in advance whether your application is suitable for using rechargeable batteries.
You can compare the operation of a rechargeable battery with a battery of a car. When it’ s empty, it can be recharged and used again. With the best possible treatment, these batteries can be recharged up to thousands of times. Because of its constant power (1.2 Volts), a rechargeable battery has virtually the same power from start to finish. Then it stops quite suddenly and has to be loaded.
A distinctive system within the various primary battery types is air-alkaline. The battery uses oxygen (O2) from the air as its cathode. The oxygen is led through holes in the casing to the cathode where reduction (absorption of electrons) takes place on a carbon layer. Because the battery casing only has to house an anode, the energy density per weight is on average high, between 220-300 Wh/kg (compared to 99-123 Wh/kg for a silver-oxide battery).
An additional advantage of this battery is its relatively low cost and environmentally friendly character. These batteries have an infinite storage time until they are activated by exposing them to air. After activation, the shelf life is rather short due to high self-discharge. Another disadvantage: once activated, the chemical process of energy production cannot be stopped, but it can be slowed down.
Applications of air-alkaline batteries:
No, not the normal alkaline batteries. Rechargeable alkaline batteries do exist, but they have major disadvantages:
Alkaline batteries, lithium batteries and specialist batteries such as Air-alkaline and ZincAir-alkaline. Alkaline batteries are often affordable and ideal for applications where power consumption is generally low. Lithium batteries last up to 7 times longer and can provide higher peak power. More information on the different types of non-rechargeable batteries (primary batteries) can be found here.
The main factors for this are the chemistry of the battery, ambient temperature and energy consumption of the application.
Read more information here.
This is a type of battery invented in 1899 by Waldmar Jungner. Some characteristics:
Click here for more details on nickel cadmium batteries.
A lithium iron phosphate battery is a battery type that features a chemistry that has been around since 1996. A number of characteristics are mentioned below:
Click here for more information on lithium iron phosphate batteries.
A lead-acid battery is the most commonly used type of battery. Lead-acid batteries have several advantages:
Click here for more information on lead-acid batteries.
Alkaline batteries are the most commonly used type of batteries. There are a number of characteristics of this type:
For more information on these types of batteries, click here.
These are a particular type of batteries that have a number of distinguishing features:
Lithium batteries are characterised by their extremely low self-discharge. The self-discharge per year is only 1% of the capacity. The voltage of this battery is exceptionally high. This information sheet lists a number of brands that produce lithium batteries and the various product variants that come with them. Lithium is a light metal with an exceptionally high capacity (3.86 Ah/gram). When lithium is mixed with other chemicals such as manganese or sulphur, the result is a battery with high energy, low weight, reduced self-discharge and the ability to perform under extreme conditions.
Applications of lithium batteries
Lithium is used in a wide range of applications, from mobile phones and microprocessors to large industrial workplaces such as in the oil and gas industry and in space.
For more information about lithium batteries, click here.
The most commonly used battery is the lead-acid battery. This is because of the simple construction of the battery and a generally low price. For more information on this battery type, as well as a recommendation of a brand that offers interesting lead-acid batteries, click here.
The most commonly used type of batteries are alkaline batteries. Providing a lot of energy is an important feature (also at low temperatures). They are often used for devices that consume less power for a long time. Click herefor more information about alkaline batteries and other types.
Nickel cadmium batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries have some interesting differences from each other:
– Nickel metal hydride batteries have up to twice the capacity of nickel cadmium batteries.
– Nickel cadmium batteries often suffer more from the ‘memory effect’ than nickel metal hydride batteries.
– Nickel-metal hydride batteries require less maintenance and care.
The nickel metal hydride battery can be considered the development on the nickel cadmium battery. For more details, click here.
There are several differences between a lithium and an alkaline battery. The most important ones are summarised below:
For more information about Alkaline and Lithium batteries, click here.
There is a lot of information available. Most of the information can be found here.
Here are some more interesting websites as well:
ATEX refers to danger zones.
The ambient atmosphere and the prevailing conditions at the workplace are decisive for the installation methods of the equipment to be used and the choice of the work equipment to be used. It is therefore a prerequisite that a danger zone classification is carried out of the areas that could be dangerous from the point of view of gas and dust explosion danger.
These potentially hazardous areas are divided into danger zones according to the frequency and duration of occurrence of an explosive atmosphere:
The lowest number indicates the most dangerous zone. The higher the classification of a danger zone, the more demanding are the requirements for the design of the working environment and for the application and use of equipment and protective systems. For more information on ATEX, click here.
ATEX stands for ATmospheres EXplosives, or explosive atmospheres.
An explosive atmosphere is defined as a mixture of flammable substances in the form of gases, fumes, mists and dusts under atmospheric conditions, in which combustion spreads to the entire mixture after ignition.
Since July 2003 ATEX 95 and ATEX 137 have been introduced; directives that were specifically written to focus attention on safety in explosive areas and make the use of explosion-proof products legally binding in such areas.
The guideline applies to all companies in which “a dangerous explosive atmosphere may occur as a result of the use of flammable substances”. For more information on ATEX, click here.
Whether a lamp is ATEX certified or not can be seen on the lamp housing. The certification is printed in it. This consists of a number of codes. These codes and their meanings are listed below:
An ATEX certification should be issued by a notified body such as KEMA or DEMKO. If the lamp is evaluated by a non-certified testing institute, the zone in which the certification is granted is maximum 2. This is the lowest protection class. For more information on ATEX, click here.
ATEX stands for ATmospheres EXplosives, or explosive atmospheres. If a lamp is ATEX-certified, this means that it is suitable for use in an explosion-hazardous environment. Whether a lamp is ATEX certified or not can be seen on the lamp housing. The certification is printed in it. Elfa has these ATEX certified lights from a number of leading brands in its range. Look here for more information.
An light bulb consists of a vacuum-drawn or glass-filled glass bulb containing a filament. When current flows through the filament, it starts to glow and emit light. There are different types of bulbs for different applications. This depends on the type of noble gas added to it. In general, we speak of 3 types of light bulbs: the ‘normal’ (krypton) light bulb, the halogen light bulb and the xenon light bulb.
There are a large number of possible fittings for the various lights. Here are the most common:
LED stands for Light Emitting Diode, and is seen as the light system of today and the future.
LEDs can be seen as the successors of light bulbs. Light bulbs have the disadvantage that after some time the filament burns out. This is different with LEDs, because they do not use a filament.
LEDs convert the power directly into light. This way, less power is consumed. The wire must glow first with a normal lamp. Another advantage is the much longer lifetime of LEDs. An LED can burn for more than ten years without breaking down.
The advantages of LEDs:
Disadvantages (especially for ‘older’ LEDs):
That depends on the type and intensity of use. In general, the large battery type 675 lasts about three weeks, while the smallest batteries (the 5 and 10) only last a few days.
The sizes of hearing batteries can be recognised by the sticker on the battery pack. Hearing batteries are usually packed in blisters of 6 pieces, as follows:
Application Battery Colour
5 red Mini devices in the ear canal
10 yellow Mini devices in the ear canal
13 orange Appliances behind the ear and in the auricle
312 Brown Devices in ear canal
675 blue Gears behind the ear
The negative pole is on the top and the positive pole on the slightly wider bottom. The plus side often shows the brand and type number; this side is almost always on top when inserting the battery.
There are various types of rechargeable batteries. They are usually built into the various devices. They are rarely available in shops, partly due to the low demand.
The maximum permissible temperatures for a battery are -55° and +125° Celsius. However, the best working environment for most cells is one where temperatures are between +10° and +35° Celsius.
Stibat stands for Batteries Foundation. This is the organisation that coordinates the collection activities for empty batteries in the Netherlands. They develop activities in various areas to inform everyone about the how and why of the collection of used batteries. And this is done on a non-profit basis. Since 1995 there has been a legal regulation stating that used batteries must be collected and recycled by or on behalf of producers and importers of batteries. Stibat has taken over this task. A so-called disposal fee must be paid per battery. Elfa is a member of Stibat and charges you the relevant disposal contribution for each battery.
Stibat arranges the collection of batteries. Empty batteries do not belong in the bin. It may contain substances that are harmful to the environment, such as the heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium. They harm the environment when disposed in the household waste. That’s why it is a good thing that more people return empty batteries. Separate from other waste. Not only the well-known penlite batteries can be returned, but also coin cells and the batteries in, for example, mobile telephones, photo and film cameras and cordless tools. Rechargeable batteries may last longer than single-use batteries, but at some point they also cease to function properly and must be disposed of responsibly. Handing in empty batteries separately not only saves the environment, but the metals of the battery are recycled for reuse (think nickel, steel and zinc). New products are made from this, such as zinc gutters, crash barriers, but also new batteries. From 25 million kilos of recycled batteries, 13 million kilos of usable metals were recovered over a period of 12 years! That is a significant saving on our mineral resources.
Click here for more information.
NEN stands for National Standardisation Institute. Those who participate in standardization share their knowledge in order to benefit from it together with others. Standardisation strives for efficient, safe, healthy and sustainable products and processes. Several interests are united in a smart way. NEN is the national standardization institute in the Netherlands. They work on economic growth and well-being in a European (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) and worldwide (ISO, IEC and ITU) context. As the Dutch centre of standardization, NEN helps companies and other organisations to make clear and applicable agreements with each other.
Click here for the website of NEN.
RoHS stands for Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances. In February 2003, the European RoHS directive came into existence. It concerns the use of lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium, PBB and PBDE. Lead-free soldering is an important part of this guideline. For the complete EU guideline, please click here.
Elfa has been around for over 100 years. Click herefor more information on Elfa’s history.
Formats are given a name and can also have a code. The names are more or less the same in all countries, although other terms are often used in common parlance. The codes are different everywhere, e.g. the international IEC code and the American code. Also each brand often uses its own codes. It is therefore often difficult to recognize the codes on packaging. The IEC code is the most common. The battery types are identified by the letters in the IEC code. Alkaline, for example, is called LR.
|IEC-code||VS-code||Name||Popularly||Dimensions (mm) (diam x height)*|
|LR20||D||Mono||Large rod, mono||34,5×61,5|
* there can sometimes be some tolerance differences in this.
Yes. The higher the capacity, the longer the battery life. The capacity is expressed in Ampere hours (Ah) or milli-Ampere hours. (mAh). You can usually read how high the capacity of the battery is on the battery itself and on the packaging. For the application equipment, more capacity means more operating time. It is therefore not harmful to use stronger batteries, but it is harmful to use voltages other than those indicated.